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deepika - December 4, 2022

What is cancer?

Cancer can upset the normal chemical balance in your body and increase your risk of serious complications. Signs and symptoms of chemical imbalances might include excessive thirst, frequent urination, constipation and confusion. It’s not clear just how many mutations must accumulate for cancer to form. Most gene mutations occur after you’re born and aren’t inherited. A number of forces can cause gene mutations, such as smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals , obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise.

Estimates are that in 2018, 18.1 million new cases of cancer and 9.6 million deaths occur globally. About 20% of males and 17% of females will get cancer at some point in time while 13% of males and 9% of females will die from it. Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention typically include an emphasis on vegetables, fruit, whole grains and fish and an avoidance of processed and red meat , animal fats, pickled foods and refined carbohydrates. Higher levels of DNA damage cause increased mutation and increased epimutation.

Acute forms of leukemia grow quickly and chronic forms grow more slowly. Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that forms in squamous cells, which are epithelial cells that lie just beneath the outer surface of the skin. Squamous cells also line many other organs, including the stomach, intestines, lungs, bladder, and kidneys. Squamous cells look flat, like fish scales, when viewed under a microscope. Squamous cell carcinomas are sometimes called epidermoid carcinomas. They are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body.

 

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To spare normal tissues , shaped radiation beams are aimed from multiple exposure angles to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. As with chemotherapy, cancers vary in their response to radiation therapy. Claims that breaking bones resulted in bone cancer, for example, have not been proven.

Folic acid supplementation is not effective in preventing colon cancer and may increase colon polyps. Selenium supplementation has not been shown to reduce the risk of cancer. Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or tissue of origin as the root. For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast.

Some cancers cause early symptoms, but others do not exhibit symptoms until they are more advanced. Many of these symptoms are often from causes unrelated to cancer. The diagnosis and death rates of cancer are dropping yearly.

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